Individual characteristics and their influence on the personality development of the child
Chapter 1. Study on the problem of development of cognitive abilities in Russian psychology.
1.1. Cognitive ability as a scientific problem.
1.2. The study of problems of individualization preschoolers in Russian psychology.
Chapter 2. Experimental study of the problem of individualization of the process of perception development in children of preschool age.
2.1. The study of individual psychological characteristics of the personality of the preschool child.
2.2. features of perceptual abilities in preschool children.
Preschool childhood is a sensitive period for the development of various skills and for opening and improving the cognitive abilities of the child.
The most important neoplasm of preschool age is the willingness to schooling, and the main component of this commitment is associated with the development of cognitive sphere of the child: the level of development of cognitive processes and cognitive environment.
G. A. Urundeuva under cognitive abilities understands mental properties required for successful execution of cognitive activity.
By the end of preschool age the child must be formed elements of arbitrary memory, and the ability to observe, to imagine arbitrarily and manage their own speech activity (Smirnova E. O.).
The skills included in the formation of shaped forms of cognition, perception, shaped memory, visual-figurative thinking, imagination, i.e. in the creation of figurative Foundation of intelligence.
Isolation and characterization of General intellectual abilities are hampered by the fact that they are responsible for many activities, and according to S. L. Rubinstein formed and manifested in them.
Knowledge begins with acquaintance with the objects and phenomena of the surrounding world, with the sensations and perceptions of their child available to him. Perception is a complex cognitive process that ensures the reflection of all the attributes and relations of objects and phenomena encountered by the child at this stage of development.
Attempts to characterize the General intellectual ability are contained in the works of S. L. Rubinstein, N. And. Menchinskaya, the Z. I. Kalmykova, as in the studies of J. A. Ponomarev. Domestic system development sensory culture is based on the theory of perception developed by L. S. Vygotsky, B. G. Ananyev, S. L. Rubinstein, A. N. Leontiev, A. V. Zaporozhets, L. A. Wenger, and others.
One of the main conditions for the successful formation of the cognitive abilities of children of preschool age is an organization of individual educational work with them. This provides a more effective assimilation of causal relationships of objects and phenomena of the surrounding reality and helps the child to navigate the world.
The problem of individual characteristics and their influence on the personality development of a child is one of the most controversial and little-studied problems in modern psychology. This question is important for understanding of identity formation, the process of personal growth, and to develop methods of correction of deviations in personality development.
Innate individual characteristics largely determine the unique path of personal development and are the basis for the development of individual style and communication.
On this basis, we propose as a problem, to consider the dependence of the development of cognitive abilities of the individual characteristics of the child’s personality.
Object – the development of cognitive sphere of personality of the preschool child.
Subject – an individual approach as the organizing principle of the development of cognitive abilities.
The aim is to trace the dynamics of the development of perception as a cognitive process leading individual in the organization approach.
1. To analyze theoretical research on the development of cognitive abilities of children.
2. To reveal the peculiarities of the development of cognitive abilities in preschool children.
3. To substantiate the relationship between the individual approach and the development of perception in children.
As a hypothesis is put forward the following assumption: an individual approach should be considered as the basis for the formation of cognitive abilities.
– theoretical: the theoretical analysis of the problem and subject of research;
– experiential: experiment.
The research base: the Central district DOE No. 208 Volgograd.
Conclusion In the process of theoretical and practical analysis of the literature on our topic, which was sent to confirm the hypothesis that an individual approach should be considered as the basis for the formation of cognitive abilities, we have the following conclusions. Cognitive abilities are mental properties required for successful execution of cognitive activity. – Cognitive abilities are successfully formed in different activities. – Perception is the cognitive ability of preschool children. – For the successful development of cognitive abilities it is necessary to build an individual approach. – Build individual approach due to the basic properties of personality: temperament, impulsivity emotive component, plasticity. On the basis of visheizlojennie conclusions, we can say that our assumption: the individual approach is the basis for the development of cognitive abilities, confirmed.